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The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century that continued into the early 17th century , during which European ships traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners.
They were in search of trading goods such as gold , silver and spices. In the process, Europeans met people and mapped lands previously unknown to them.
Henry the Navigator started by paying Portuguese sailors to explore the west coast of Africa. Later in the 15th century , Vasco da Gama reached the southwestern tip of Africa and established the city of Cape Town , a Portuguese colony.
This opened the way to the Indian Ocean. In the next two centuries, the Portuguese created a great trading empire on coasts of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula , and India.
In a hurry to compete with Portugal for a colonial empire, Spain sent Christopher Columbus to the opposite route of the Portuguese. Instead of going south along the west coast of Africa, Columbus sailed across the Atlantic Ocean.
He believed that he came to Asia. Later, some Spanish sailors found out that this land was a different continent than Asia.
It is now called the Americas. In the 16th century , Spanish conquistadores gained the whole of what later became Latin America , except some British and French colonies in northeastern South America , and Brazil, which belonged to Portugal.
The Spanish concentrated on conquest , unlike the Portuguese who focused on trading. They eventually developed a vast colonial empire, in contrast to the Portuguese who ruled a few islands and coastal cities along the Indian Ocean.
The Age of Exploration ended in the early 17th century after technological advancements and increased knowledge of the world allowed Europeans to travel easily across the globe by sea.
The creation of permanent settlements and colonies created a network of communication and trade, therefore ending the need to search for new routes.
It is important to note that exploration did not cease entirely at this time. Eastern Australia was not officially claimed for Britain by Capt.
James Cook until , while much of the Arctic and Antarctic were not explored until the 20th century. Much of Africa also was unexplored by Westerners until the late 19th century and early 20th century.
The Age of Exploration had a significant impact on geography. By traveling to different regions around the globe, explorers were able to learn more about areas such as Africa and the Americas and bring that knowledge back to Europe.
Methods of navigation and mapping improved as a result of the travels of people such as Prince Henry the Navigator.
Prior to his expeditions, navigators had used traditional portolan charts, which were based on coastlines and ports of call, keeping sailors close to shore.
The Spanish and Portuguese explorers who journeyed into the unknown created the world's first nautical maps, delineating not just the geography of the lands they found but also the seaward routes and ocean currents that led them there.
As technology advanced and known territory expanded, maps and mapmaking became more and more sophisticated.
These explorations also introduced a whole new world of flora and fauna to Europeans. Corn, now a staple of much of the world's diet, was unknown to Westerners until the time of the Spanish conquest, as were sweet potatoes and peanuts.
Likewise, Europeans had never seen turkeys, llamas, or squirrels before setting foot in the Americas. The Age of Exploration served as a stepping stone for geographic knowledge.
It allowed more people to see and study various areas around the world, which increased geographic study, giving us the basis for much of the knowledge we have today.
The effects of colonization still persist as well, with many of the world's former colonies still considered the "developing" world and the colonizers the First World countries, holding a majority of the world's wealth and receiving a majority of its annual income.
Share Flipboard Email. Table of Contents Expand. Privateer and notable explorer most remembered as the leader of the expedition to Virginia in and the establishment of the Jamestown Colony.
Christopher Newport was among the first to the Jamestown Colony in , and through his voyages, resupplied the colony to help keep it growing and sustained.
He led the first circumnavigation of the world, and is considered the first European to cross the Pacific Ocean. Used primarily for trade, the Fluit was adept at sailing in colder climates and had a large cargo hold.
He effectively ended Spanish dominance over the seas and the New World, allowing England to become a global empire. He explored the southwestern part of the United States, which helped claim the land for Spanish colonization.
Francisco Coronado was one of the first Europeans to heavily explore the southwest portion of North America for the Spanish Empire.
Henry Hudson made several voyages along upper North America and into the Arctic while searching for the Northwest Passage route to Asia.
Hernando Cortes sailed from Spain to the Caribbean and then eventually to Mexico where he went on to conquer the Aztec Empire.
Spanish explorer and conquistador who helped conquer parts of Central and South America, explored the southeastern region of the United States, and is credited as the first European to cross the Mississippi River.
French navigator and explorer credited with naming Canada, exploring the St. Lawrence River, and Canadian areas that would become French territory.
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The Portuguese discovered Madeira by chance. In , two Portuguese captains in the service of Prince Henry the Navigator were driven by a storm to an island which they named Porto Santo.
In the following year, the captains returned to claim the island for Portugal and discovered a larger island Madeira to its southwest.
In , the Azores were discovered, and in the following decades the Portuguese continued their exploration along the west coast of Africa.
Cape Bojador on the northern coast of Western Sahara was crossed in , while Senegal and Cape Verde were reached in In the following year, the Portuguese had made it as far south as what is currently Sierra Leone.
Subsequently the Portuguese explored the Gulf of Guinea, and they discovered the Congo in Four years later, they were at Cape Cross, in modern day Namibia.
This was a significant event, as it meant that the Portuguese had finally reached the southern end of Africa and could now sail eastwards into the Indian Ocean.
Nevertheless, it would take the Portuguese some time before they arrived in India. In , Vasco da Gama landed in Calicut, in southwestern India, making him the first European to arrive in India by an oceanic route.
Vasco da Gama. For much of the 15th century the Portuguese were free to explore the oceans without any opposition from other European states.
Spain at that time the Crowns of Castile and Aragon , which would have been the main rivals of the Portuguese, was occupied with other matters during that century.
As previously mentioned, the Reconquista only ended in after the fall of Granada. Additionally, the Spanish were more concerned at that time with the Mediterranean, as a number of areas outside Spain, including southern Italy, Sardinia, and Sicily, were under the Crown of Aragon.
Nevertheless, the Spanish had no intention of losing out to the Portuguese and the two powers were locked in competition, each wanting to be the first to reach the East by sea.
In January , shortly after the conquest of Granada, a Genoese explorer by the name of Christopher Columbus finally succeeded in obtaining the sponsorship of Ferdinand II and Isabella I to voyage across the Atlantic.
Columbus presented a radical proposal to the Spanish monarchs — he believed that it was possible to reach Asia by sailing westwards. Columbus was rejected by Ferdinand and Isabella as well, at least twice, before securing their patronage in Contrary to popular belief, Columbus was not denied sponsorship because of the belief that the earth was flat, but rather because the experts at the Portuguese and Spanish courts believed that Columbus had grossly underestimated the distance between Europe and Asia.
In this matter, the Portuguese and Spanish experts were right. Columbus, however, was extremely lucky, as there was a previously unknown land mass, i.
As a result, Columbus is remembered in the West as the man who discovered the New World. In the years following the discovery of the New World, Columbus maintained that he had found the western route to Asia, and may have genuinely held that belief, despite the increasing evidence that the land he had discovered was not Asia, but another continent.
Columbus aside, the discovery of lands to the west of Europe be it Asia or another continent escalated the conflict between Portugal and Spain.
In response, the Spanish simply obtained new papal bulls to counter the old ones. Conveniently for them, the pope at the time was Alexander VI, a native of Valencia and a friend of the Spanish king.
Therefore, papal bulls that favored the Spanish were easily obtained. One of these bulls, Inter caetera , stated that all lands to the west and south of a pole-to-pole line of leagues west and south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde islands would belong to Spain, apart from any lands ruled by Christians, which would be left untouched.
Pope Alexander VI. Detail from a fresco of the resurrection, painted in - by Pinturicchio. The Portuguese were not at all pleased with this arrangement and they began negotiations with the Spanish.
As a result, the Treaty of Tordesillas was signed on June 7, , and later sanctioned by the pope, Julius II, in According to this treaty, the world was to be divided into two hemispheres between the Spanish and the Portuguese.
Although the Portuguese accepted the line set by the pope in the Inter caetera , they requested the Spanish have it moved leagues to the west.
Therefore, a north-south meridian leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, roughly halfway between those islands and the ones newly discovered by Columbus, was established.
The treaty allowed Spain and Portugal to conquer any new lands they were the first to discover except those ruled by Christians - the former to the west, and the latter to the east, even if they passed each other on the other side of the globe.
Consequently, the Spanish colonized much of South America in the decades that followed, while the Portuguese continued their exploration of the East.
Incidentally, the coast of Brazil fell within the east half of the meridian, and therefore could be claimed by the Portuguese when it was discovered in A problem with the Treaty of Tordesillas became apparent in when the Moluccas were discovered by the Portuguese.
Although the islands were claimed by Portugal, a counterclaim was made by Spain in , as they are said to be in the western hemisphere.
A solution was reached in when the Treaty of Zaragoza was signed. Another line, the anti-meridian, was fixed at Although the two treaties pleased the Spanish and Portuguese, they excluded other European powers, who in turn did not recognize the validity of the texts.
Thus, these treaties did not stop them from conducting their own voyages of exploration when the time came. The English and the Dutch who inhabited the northern part of Europe were entertaining the idea of a northern sea passage to the East.
These explorers were much less successful than Columbus. Beginning in the middle of the 16th century, a number of voyages were launched in order to seek the Northeast Passage.
The passage, however, eluded the explorers, and was only found during the second half of the 19th century. Expeditions were also conducted to find the Northwest Passage, which linked Asia to America via the sea.
Like its northeastern counterpart, the quest for the Northwest Passage began as early as the 16th century. Nevertheless, it was only at the beginning of the 20th century that the passage was found.
Finally, while the Age of Discovery is regarded as a glorious era by Europeans, it was a very different story for the peoples they encountered during their voyages.
Many of these civilizations ended up being colonized by the Europeans, sometimes through brutal conquest. Nevertheless, they were destroyed in a short period of time by a small number of Spanish conquistadors.
One of the factors that aided the conquistadors in their conquest of these civilizations was the spread of diseases, such as smallpox , which was common in Europe but unheard of in the Americas.
These diseases decimated the indigenous peoples of the New World - causing labor shortages, sadness, and pain. In turn this had a hugely negative impact on another continent; African slaves were forcibly brought to the New World to work on plantations.
Top image: The Age of Discovery was a time when European explorers journeyed across the world. Briney, A. A Brief History of the Age of Exploration.
Flint, V. Christopher Columbus. McClure, J. Did the Age of Exploration bring more harm than good?. Mitchell, J.
The Age Of Discovery. National Geographic, Jun 7, CE: Treaty of Tordesillas. New World Encyclopedia, Treaty of Tordesillas. Mongol Empire.
Portuguese Empire. Spanish Empire. Pariona, A. First, toward the end of the 14th century, the vast empire of the Mongols was breaking up; thus, Western merchants could no longer be assured of safe-conduct along the land routes.
Second, the Ottoman Turks and the Venetians controlled commercial access to the Mediterranean and the ancient sea routes from the East.
Third, new nations on the Atlantic shores of Europe were now ready to seek overseas trade and adventure. Henry the Navigator , prince of Portugal , initiated the first great enterprise of the Age of Discovery—the search for a sea route east by south to Cathay.
His motives were mixed. He was curious about the world; he was interested in new navigational aids and better ship design and was eager to test them; he was also a Crusader and hoped that, by sailing south and then east along the coast of Africa, Arab power in North Africa could be attacked from the rear.
The promotion of profitable trade was yet another motive; he aimed to divert the Guinea trade in gold and ivory away from its routes across the Sahara to the Moors of Barbary North Africa and instead channel it via the sea route to Portugal.
Expedition after expedition was sent forth throughout the 15th century to explore the coast of Africa.
Prince Henry died in after a career that had brought the colonization of the Madeira Islands and the Azores and the traversal of the African coast to Sierra Leone.
All seemed promising; trade was good with the riverine peoples, and the coast was trending hopefully eastward.
Then the disappointing fact was realized: the head of a great gulf had been reached, and, beyond, the coast seemed to stretch endlessly southward.
In he rounded the Cape of Storms in such bad weather that he did not see it, but he satisfied himself that the coast was now trending northeastward; before turning back, he reached the Great Fish River, in what is now South Africa.
On the return voyage, he sighted the Cape and set up a pillar upon it to mark its discovery. The seaway was now open, but eight years were to elapse before it was exploited.
In Columbus had apparently reached the East by a much easier route. Interest was therefore renewed in establishing the sea route south by east to the known riches of India.
This he did after a magnificent voyage around the Cape of Storms which he renamed the Cape of Good Hope and along the unknown coast of East Africa.
Soon trading depots, known as factories, were built along the African coast, at the strategic entrances to the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf , and along the shores of the Indian peninsula.
In the Portuguese established a base at Malacca now Melaka, Malaysia , commanding the straits into the China Sea; in and , the Moluccas, or Spice Islands, and Java were reached; in the trading port of Macau was founded at the mouth of the Canton River.
Europe had arrived in the East.
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